Levesque was 15 and imagining a profession in images when she first heard about little one marriage. A lot of ladies in her household had married younger, so her mom had raised her to be impartial and self-supporting as an alternative. “I used to be the particular person outdoors of politics who was similar to, ‘Down with the patriarchy,’” she recollects. “I used to be taught there’s not all the time going to be somebody to advocate for me, so I’ve to advocate for myself.”
Then, at a 2015 convention for high-school Woman Scouts in Rhode Island, Levesque heard presenters from UNICEF USA speak about gender inequality, little one marriage and human trafficking. The message that women in hassle wanted different women to advocate for them resonated with Levesque. Again dwelling in New Hampshire, she regarded up her state’s legal guidelines and was appalled to study that women as younger as 13 could possibly be married there. She requested state representatives she’d met by means of Woman Scouts to sponsor a invoice elevating the wedding age to 18.
Quickly, Levesque was lobbying legislators on the state capitol in Harmony. “She was very, very shy,” recollects former state Rep. Jackie Cilley, a Democrat who represented Levesque’s hometown of Barrington, “however this is a matter that basically had her coronary heart and soul. She pushed by means of that problem, chatting with teams, to committee hearings.”
At first, Cilley was incredulous that 13-year-old women might marry in New Hampshire — however as soon as she confirmed that Levesque was proper, Cilley and different sponsors introduced a invoice to boost the minimal marriage age to 18 earlier than the state Home in early 2017. It could’ve been the nation’s first, and opposition emerged. Some Republican legislators argued that 17-year-olds becoming a member of the army ought to have the ability to marry their pregnant girlfriends. The invoice failed on a 179-168 vote, with all Republicans and 18 Democrats voting no.
The vote left Levesque shocked, however wiser. “All of us thought it was a fairly straightforward invoice,” she recalled. “It was simply fixing an previous legislation that wanted to be modified.” The defeat taught her a lesson about politics. “It’s not going to be all easy,” she stated. “It’s going to be troublesome.”
However due to Levesque, the once-obscure situation of kid marriage acquired a burst of nationwide consideration. A Boston TV report confirmed Levesque, carrying her badge-adorned scouting vest, making a succinct case for the invoice. It was a sharp distinction with the dismissiveness of a then-representative who stated he didn’t need to change a century-old legislation due to “a request from a minor doing a Woman Scout mission.” “You’ve made a excellent level!” Levesque recollects pondering. “I’m nonetheless a child!” — however nonetheless of authorized age to marry. It was a ripe goal for Comic Samantha Bee, who mocked the state rep on her TBS present Full Frontal.
As Levesque’s activism grew, her grandmother confided in her about her expertise as a little one bride. “She by no means shared about it together with her youngsters,” Levesque stated. Born in 1927, her grandmother had married a Navy sailor at age 16 to flee residing with an uncle who molested her. However her husband grew to become emotionally abusive. Coming back from deployments to Hawaii, he’d brag about his many infidelities. She left him when she was 18 and later remarried. “I need to let you know the story about it,’” Levesque recollects her grandmother saying. “She needed it to be heard.” Levesque now tells her grandmother’s story in hearings about her invoice.
In 2018, Cilley proposed compromise payments to boost New Hampshire’s minimal marriage age to 16 and to require judges to grant marriages involving 16-to-17-year-olds solely “upon clear and convincing proof” that it was within the minor’s finest curiosity. Sununu endorsed the payments, and so they handed simply. “I used to be a little bit dissatisfied,” Levesque stated of the compromise, “however it’s a stepping stone towards the suitable route.” Levesque introduced her grandmother together with her to the signing ceremony.
Across the identical time, Cilley was retiring, so native Democrats requested Levesque to run for state consultant within the multi-member district representing Barrington, her hometown. “We’d like youthful people who find themselves bolder,” stated state Rep. Ellen Learn, a Democrat from close by Newmarket who helped recruit Levesque to run. “We actually want people who find themselves keen to battle for the suitable factor, not essentially what’s of their finest curiosity career-wise. Cassie has proven she’s keen to face up and battle for one thing, even when it upsets individuals.”
Levesque paid the $2 submitting price with two Susan B. Anthony greenback cash. She ran on addressing water-quality issues and representing small-town companies — a good match for Barrington, a rural city recognized for the 152-year-old Calef’s Country Store. “The primary time that I ever voted was the time that I voted for myself,” she stated.
In a four-person race for 2 seats, Levesque got here in first, defeating two Republicans of their 60s, an Air Power veteran and a library trustee. “I’m very younger,” she explains, “so I wasn’t the everyday politician most individuals consider.”
Child marriage has existed all through American historical past. Although it has declined in current many years, particularly because the stigma has lessened round unwed motherhood, it has by no means utterly disappeared, stated Nicholas Syrett, writer of the 2016 guide American Child Bride: A History of Minors and Marriage in the United States.
“It has by no means been a norm, however there have all the time been a important quantity of people that have married as minors,” stated Syrett. In 1960, 6.6 p.c of American women aged 15 to 17 had been married; in 2010, solely 0.4 p.c had been, based on Census figures cited in Syrett’s guide. “The stigma round illegitimacy and unwed motherhood actually declined.”
However even that small proportion represents a surprisingly excessive variety of individuals. Unchained At Last’s study, based mostly on full marriage-license information from 32 states and partial information from 12 extra, confirmed that a minimum of 232,474 youngsters married within the U.S. between 2000 and 2018. The examine discovered that the variety of minors marrying has decreased practically yearly, from about 20,000 in 2002 to about 2,500 in 2018.
“Individuals who object to banning little one marriage imagine a child will likely be higher off if its mother and father are married,” Syrett stated. “There’s not a lot proof to counsel that’s true, if the mother and father are poor and minors to start with.” Fairly the opposite, Syrett provides: “From the early twentieth century onward, the youthful you get married, the extra seemingly you might be to get divorced.”
The politics of kid marriage don’t map neatly onto our partisan divides. In some states, child-marriage bans have handed with overwhelming bipartisan help. In Pennsylvania, a Republican-sponsored legislation prohibiting marriage earlier than age 18 handed the Republican legislature unanimously in 2020. In Minnesota that very same yr, a Democrat-sponsored child-marriage legislation handed the GOP-controlled Senate with out opposition.
However in New Hampshire and another states, debate about child-marriage bans does appear to have a partisan edge. Democrats help a ban, involved about exploitation of women, whereas Republicans see the bans as authorities overreach into mother and father’ and teenagers’ choices. Conservative legislators in states resembling Louisiana and Idaho — which every recorded about 5,100 marriages involving minors between 2010 and 2018 — have refused to move comparable bans, saying pregnant teenagers shouldn’t be stored from marrying. As a substitute, the 2 states, which had no minimal marriage age 4 years in the past, have since set it at 16.
New Jersey’s first try and ban little one marriage failed in 2017, when then-Gov. Chris Christie vetoed a Republican-sponsored invoice, saying it “doesn’t comport with the sensibilities and, in some instances, the non secular customs, of the individuals of this State.” (He didn’t specify which non secular customs.) Since New Jersey permits pregnant women to get an abortion with out parental consent or notification, Christie additionally argued, banning 16- and 17-year-olds from marrying was “disingenuous” and an “inconsistency in logic.” In 2018, the reintroduced child-marriage ban handed the state Home, 59-0, and the Senate, 30-5, regardless of opposition from members of Orthodox Jewish communities who needed a non secular exemption. Christie’s successor, Democrat Phil Murphy, signed it into legislation.
The problem breaks down otherwise on the federal degree. Although the U.S. State Division declared little one marriage a human-rights violation in 2016, U.S. immigration legislation consists of no minimal age for visa petitions involving marriages. A 2019 U.S. Senate report discovered that U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Companies had authorised 8,686 visa petitions involving minor spouses and fiancées from 2007 to 2017. (Mexican nationals made up 40 p.c of the authorised beneficiaries. Center Jap nationals, principally from Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan and Yemen, had the very best approval charges for petitions.) In Congress, it’s conservative Republicans who carry the anti-child marriage banner. In 2019, Republican U.S. Sens. Ron Johnson, Joni Ernst and Tom Cotton proposed a invoice to require each events in a spousal visa to be 18.
In a few states, although, opposition to banning little one marriage comes from the left. In California, a invoice to boost the wedding age to 18 failed in 2017 after state chapters of the American Civil Liberties Union and Planned Parenthood opposed it; the ACLU argued that the invoice “unnecessarily and unduly intrudes on the basic rights of marriage with out adequate trigger.” A compromise legislation, signed in 2018, requires judges to search for proof of coercion earlier than granting a marriage license to a minor.
California is one among nine states with no minimum marriage age. Assemblymember Cottie Petrie-Norris, a Democrat from Laguna Seaside, needs to alter that. “In a state the place we like to consider ourselves as setting the pattern strains, that is a place the place we’re simply failing,” she stated. She plans to introduce this yr a new invoice to ban little one marriage.
Petrie-Norris stated some abortion-rights supporters are involved that a child-marriage ban might develop into a slippery slope affecting reproductive rights; California is one 11 states with no parental involvement in minors’ abortions. “I believe these are essentially totally different points,” she stated. “We have now minimal ages to smoke cigarettes, drive a automotive and purchase alcohol. None of that has any implication for the suitable to entry reproductive well being care in my thoughts.”
The California debate is stymied by a lack of baseline information. It’s one among six states that offered no marriage-license data to Unchained At Final for its 2021 examine. The California Division of Public Well being, responding to a reporting requirement within the 2018 legislation, counts 17 marriages of minors statewide in 2019 and 17 in 2020 — together with two males, ages 25 and 22, marrying 15-year-old women. Petrie-Norris stated she’s struggling to reconcile these double-digit figures with the U.S. Census American Neighborhood Survey estimate that 12,000 married minors ages 15 to 17 lived in California in 2019. “I fear it’s extra seemingly one thing falling by means of the cracks with respect to reporting,” she stated.
In New Hampshire, too, a debate in regards to the prevalence of kid marriage is a part of the controversy. State data present that 407 minors married in New Hampshire between 1995 and 2021. Eighty p.c had been women marrying males 18 years or older. However even earlier than the 2018 legislation raised the minimal marriage age to 16, little one marriage in New Hampshire was on the decline. Annual numbers of women marrying within the state have fallen from about 35 in 1995 to 5 every in 2019 and 2021. Now, opponents of reform argue that little one marriage has develop into too uncommon to advantage banning.
“I don’t assume it’s a large drawback in New Hampshire,” stated Rice, the Republican chair of New Hampshire’s Kids and Household Legislation Committee.
Rice defends the suitable of older teenagers to marry. “If a 17-year-old will get pregnant and so they resolve to get married, that’s between them and their mother and father.” Certainly, activists’ testimony about teen marriages’ excessive failure charges appears solely to have hardened Rice’s opposition to a ban. “I don’t need to put a lot negativity on marriage,” stated Rice, who stated on the February committee listening to that she married at 19. “I don’t need to inform somebody who acquired married at 17 that you just’re doomed to fail. That’s not the angle to have in the direction of marriage. That’s most likely why all people will get divorced today.”
Levesque has heard such arguments earlier than. “A couple of representatives have stated, ‘I acquired married younger, and I’m nonetheless married to them, and it was a good marriage,’” stated Levesque. “And I stated, ‘That’s actually nice, [but you] are the 20 p.c, versus the 80 p.c who find yourself in conditions that they want might’ve been stopped.”