World

The disposable US workforce: life as an ‘essential’ meatpacking plant worker | Meat industry

Jose Tovar believes he can pinpoint the day he obtained Covid-19: it was 8 April 2020 and he was chopping chuck bone at a meatpacking plant in Cactus, somewhat city within the Texas panhandle.

Cactus is perhaps a small place, however in the event you usually eat beef within the US, at one time or one other, it very probably got here from the JBS meatpacking plant right here, the place Tovar was certainly one of its 3,000 staff.

The day he caught Covid, Tovar remembers that the person working subsequent to him on the road was visibly in poor health. Simply two days later Tovar, an immigrant from the northern Mexican border state of Coahuila, was in need of breath and had a fever.

Firm administration refused to share the well being standing of his coworker, Tovar remembers, and he was instructed it was as much as him if he examined for Covid-19. He examined constructive the subsequent day, and went into quarantine.

At one level within the preliminary weeks of the disaster, supervisors on the Cactus facility instructed staff to make use of hairnets, relatively than masks, to cowl their nostril and mouth, in accordance with Tovar. “It was completely ridiculous,” stated Tovar.

On the time, it didn’t happen to him that he must struggle so exhausting to show that he caught Covid at work, or that within the coming weeks tons of of his co-workers, and their households can be contaminated. Or that meat plant staff can be hit so exhausting by the pandemic that representatives would liken their expertise to that of a “disposable” workforce.

The human prices are nonetheless being absolutely comprehended. Final month a Home subcommittee report discovered that staff on the main US meatpacking crops skilled circumstances and deaths that had been up to three times previous estimates. For Tovar and plenty of different staff the early response by the large corporations was key, and indicative of longterm, systemic considerations about security.

A man wearing a cowboy hat and boots walks down a street in Cactus, Texas.
A worker from the JBS meatpacking plant walks by way of the streets of Cactus, Texas. {Photograph}: Encarni Pindado/The Guardian

The World Well being Group declared the coronavirus a pandemic in mid March final yr, and Texas’s governor labeled its unfold throughout the state as a catastrophe. But, for almost a month, JBS didn’t do sufficient to guard its staff on the Cactus facility, a lot of them low paid refugees or migrants, in accordance with interviews with staff, union leaders and consultants.

“You simply have to have a look at the situations in crops to know the way in which that folk had been crowded with out masks was an epicenter of transmission,” stated Melissa Perry, chair of Environmental and Occupational Well being at George Washington College. Perry was an professional for Tovar in a lawsuit he later filed for compensation advantages from the insurer after lacking work for weeks on account of Covid.

Tourists pose in front of the oversized cow statue at The Big Texan restaurant.
Vacationers pose in entrance of the outsized cow statue at The Massive Texan restaurant. {Photograph}: Encarni Pindado/The Guardian

Worker representatives recalled that when some folks introduced masks from residence, human sources ordered them eliminated. “JBS was involved that individuals had been going to get scared or excited [about mask use],” stated Celestino Rivera, the United Meals and Industrial Staff union consultant for the Cactus plant.

Requested about its response to the outbreak, JBS stated it “aggressively” prioritized well being and security by way of a range of steps to maintain the virus out of its services as early as February 2020. It stated that to instruct staff to put on hairnets as against masks would have been a violation of firm coverage.

In mid-April, the corporate started to put in plastic dividers between staff, hand out masks and examine temperatures on the entrance of the constructing. Staff 65 years and older had been saved from the plant and anybody experiencing Covid signs was suggested to quarantine at residence.

Jose Tovar sits on a dark couch at his home in Amarillo, Texas.
Jose Tovar, a former worker on the JBS meatpacking plant in Cactus, Texas, remembers a visibly in poor health man working subsequent to him the day earlier than he caught Covid. {Photograph}: Encarni Pindado/The Guardian

Nonetheless, there was immense strain felt by staff to maintain working as staffing shortages raised the specter of a brief shutdown. The firm even resorted to money and steak incentives to maintain staff on the road. By the tip of the month, the Trump administration had stepped in to declare meat processing crops “important infrastructure”. “We felt there have been cases the place supervisors, as a result of they had been brief handed, had been making an attempt to persuade people to proceed working,” Rivera stated.

State well being investigators in late April had been monitoring a minimum of 159 coronavirus infections tied to the Cactus plant, together with one loss of life related to the outbreak, the Texas Tribune reported on the time.

When Tovar returned to work in Could, he stated that in banners and different communications there was an enormous give attention to the “important staff” message. “They saved telling us we had been important in order that we wouldn’t complain,” Tovar stated. “It felt incorrect.” Tovar stated the processor was getting by with a depleted workforce, which made the tempo of manufacturing daunting. Pissed off, a few of his co-workers handed across the variety of Texas RioGrande Authorized Assist, a nonprofit group that gives pro-bono authorized companies to low-income folks throughout Texas. “I wasn’t in search of cash, and I didn’t care if (JBS) fired me,” Tovar stated. “I wished to struggle for justice.”

There have been 914 Covid-19 circumstances related to that JBS plant by the tip of June 2020, Texas Well being and Human Providers instructed the Guardian in an e mail.


Cactus might be finest identified for a Waylon Jennings track, named after the city, an immigration raid that hit the meatpacker in 2006, and a twister that ripped by way of city the next yr. Nowadays, the streets of Cactus are populated by refugees and migrants. The Guardian spoke to greater than 30 staff within the city; many had tales about how powerful life may very well be working within the plant, even earlier than the pandemic. Some described accidents, together with one man who confirmed the Guardian his hand the place certainly one of his fingers had been amputated in an accident on the plant.

Emmanuel, who lost part of his finger while working in a meatpacking plant, talks to his friends in Cactus.
Emmanuel, who misplaced a part of his finger whereas working in a meatpacking plant, talks to his buddies in Cactus. {Photograph}: Encarni Pindado/The Guardian

Contemplating the blood-drenched surroundings of a slaughterhouse it ought to come as little shock that the industry depends closely upon, and the federal government is complicit in offering, international born staff to fill jobs that almost all Americans received’t do. Although traumatic accidents from ultrasharp knives and bone-crushing machines are frequent, the gradual put on and tear of the job may also break a physique. Current protections merely don’t account for the bodily toll of disassembling 1000’s of animals into their saleable components for a residing. In the end it took the devastation of the Covid-19 pandemic to totally expose the vulnerability of the nation’s meat processing staff.

From the beginning of the pandemic till September nearly 60,000 slaughterhouse staff on the main corporations have contracted the coronavirus, and at least 298 of them have died. A precise accounting of the virus’s toll could by no means be identified, partially, due to what has been described as weak oversight and a hands-off approach to office inspections that had been options of the US Occupational Security and Well being Administration (OSHA) enforcement beneath the Trump administration.

Workers stand outside a shed next to the JBS building in the wee hours of the morning.
Staff on the JBS meatpacking plant in Cactus end up their evening shift. {Photograph}: Encarni Pindado/The Guardian

On the marketing campaign path, Joe Biden forged himself as a champion of the working man, calling consideration to the plight of staff within the meatpacking and processing industry. As president, Biden directed Osha to problem new emergency short-term requirements to guard staff from the unfold of the coronavirus. He additionally paused a controversial Trump-era proposal that might have allowed some meat processors to extend line speeds past regulatory limits. Each steps had been broadly praised by worker advocates, amongst them Debbie Berkowitz, a former Osha chief of workers, now a fellow on the Kalmanovitz Initiative for Labor and the Working Poor at Georgetown College. However after a number of months in workplace, the momentum towards deeper reforms has stalled, Berkowitz stated. “The meat industry has not been held accountable for his or her failure to adequately defend staff,” Berkowitz stated, “a real travesty.”

Left: A flock of birds circle the JBS meatpacking plant in Cactus, Texas. Right: Steaks are piled in a display case.

In an announcement, Osha stated it was dedicated to worker security and added that, as Biden had ordered, it was “persevering with to evaluation” its response to Covid.

Worker advocates and security consultants say the administration has barely scratched the floor of issues baked into the industry’s DNA. “The pandemic opened a window to the working situations inside these crops,” stated Celeste Monfronton, office security professional, “however the consideration has probably not prolonged to the underlying causes.” Massive multinational corporations dominate the $227bn market and earlier than the pandemic about eight staff died yearly, whereas coronavirus has claimed a minimum of 30 occasions that quantity.

A man jumps in the air to kick a yellow ball to another standing nearby.
Myanmar refugees play sepak takraw, a type of ‘kick volleyball’ sport, within the streets. {Photograph}: Encarni Pindado/The Guardian

Industry critics say international staff are significantly prone to exploitation, and the US refugee resettlement system funnels refugees to slaughterhouse jobs. Nearly 40% of the US meat industry workforce is international born and in Texas the quantity is nearer to 56%.

“Our authorities has partnered with the meat industry to convey refugees in order that they’ve a workforce that’s weak and scared,” Berkowitz stated. “And so they get away with it as a result of the industry is hidden from public view.” Advocates say the Biden administration has proven no indication that it’ll tackle the social situations and coverage environments that endanger the lives of staff, such as requiring that the industry interact in well being and security analysis.

Consideration has turned, for now, to the congressional panel investigation into how the nation’s largest meatpacking corporations dealt with the pandemic. The investigation, opened in February by the Home choose subcommittee on the coronavirus disaster, stated not solely had JBS USA, Smithfield Meals and Tyson Meals refused to take fundamental precautions to guard their staff, they’d “shown a callous disregard for workers’ health”. In September the committee’s chair, Jim Clyburn, added Cargill and National Beef Packing Company (Nationwide Beef) to its investigation.

Women and children sit on a carpet to share a meal.
Refugees from Myanmar make up a portion of the JBS workforce. {Photograph}: Encarni Pindado/The Guardian

With barely 21,000 residents unfold over 900 sq miles of windswept plains, the folks of Moore county, the place Cactus is situated, have cultivated a type of frontier mentality. Maybe that partly explains why county officers converse so supportively about its largest employer: JBS. Tommy Brooks, the county’s emergency coordinator, bristled on the suggestion the corporate, or county officers, ought to have acted sooner to guard staff. “This can be a very respected firm,” Brooks stated. “(JBS) did what they wanted to do to ensure their folks stayed as protected as they presumably may whereas nonetheless offering meals to the American folks.”

The firm claims to have adopted measures past federal steering and industry requirements, together with ordering face masks in March, and requiring their use in April. Furthermore, the corporate stated staff who examined constructive for Covid acquired as much as 26 weeks of pay on the short-term incapacity pay price of between 60% to 70% of their base pay. And Covid associated healthcare prices had been coated in full, whereas the households of staff who died from the virus acquired compensation equal to a minimum of one yr’s wage, in accordance with JBS. “We strongly disagree with any declare that implies we have now not prioritized the security of our workforce always all through the pandemic,” JBS stated in an announcement.

When the Division of State Well being Service initially supplied help, the corporate refused, and as far as Brooks and county Decide Rowdy Rhoades may see, there was no motive to doubt the corporate’s resolution.

With a minimum of 3,476 sick and 85 lifeless, Rhoades acknowledged the devastation brought on by the coronavirus in his county. He added that Covid restrictions that shuttered companies was tragic in its personal proper. “This sounds silly for me to say, however we’re God’s nation,” Rhoades stated of how the county endured the pandemic. “God takes care of us.”

Four men talk and sip coffee outside a restaurant.
Males from the African refugee neighborhood in Cactus collect on the Safari restaurant in Cactus. {Photograph}: Encarni Pindado/The Guardian

Tovar missed three weeks of labor with Covid and had a struggle to get absolutely compensated from a state staff compensation insurance coverage scheme. Since passage of the Texas Staff’ Compensation Act in 1989, it has grow to be exceedingly troublesome for staff to sue over accidents or diseases that occurred at work. Texas companies are usually not required to subscribe to the employees’ compensation program, however the ones that do can’t be sued for negligence. “The system is anti-worker, anti-safety and designed to profit large enterprise,” stated John Gibson, a Lubbock-based staff’ compensation lawyer.

With few authorized choices, Tovar filed swimsuit in Could of 2020 towards American Zurich Insurance coverage Firm, a participant in a Texas’s staff’ compensation insurance coverage program, which had denied him short-term revenue advantages for missed work. His declare was rejected by the insurance coverage firm, so Chris Benoit, Tovar’s legal professional, took his case to the Texas division of insurance coverage’s division of staff’ compensation.

Benoit needed to show that Tovar contracted the virus at work, one thing that only a few staff’ compensation circumstances involving respiratory illnesses have discovered. His professional witness was Melissa Perry, the epidemiologist from George Washington College. Within the two weeks previous to his an infection, Perry instructed the Guardian that JBS did nearly nothing to restrict the unfold of the virus. She based mostly her opinion, partially, on crowded working situations and pictures that Tovar took of the plant locker room. “Everybody was simply huddled along with no masks,” Perry stated.

Benoit argued that JBS didn’t socially distance its staff, or require masks on the time Tovar was uncovered to the virus. The solely affordable epidemiological conclusion, she stated, was that the virus was transmitted to Tovar contained in the plant. “What was additionally clear from her evaluation is that the one factor that they needed to do to decrease the chance of publicity in an outbreak like this was to scale back the road velocity and house out staff,” Benoit stated of Perry’s testimony. “That’s simply not one thing they had been keen to do.”

The insurer dragged out his case for a yr, however, in Could, it misplaced, and paid Tovar that $1,300 in misplaced advantages, in what was seen as a “rare win for workers”.


Critics say the enterprise mannequin of meat processors is designed to maintain the well being of the industry, not its staff. Injured and sick staff are sorted by a pool of firm permitted docs who, critics say, ship them again to work in order that manufacturing received’t endure, and the corporate can keep away from reporting misplaced workdays to Osha.

Employers had been gradual to guard their staff, Tovar’s professional Perry stated, including that Osha did not implement an infection management necessities. “What can change if there’s actually no information, if there’s actually no info, if the businesses say issues are positive and Osha, which can by no means set foot contained in the plant, accepts that on face worth,” stated Perry. For a change, union officers say the administration is listening to their considerations and in search of their enter. By January this yr simply 5 meatpacking crops have been fined a complete of $69,000 for Covid-19 violations.

Fairly than strengthen worker protections, Texas lawmakers made it even tougher to problem negligent employers when it handed Senate Invoice 6 this June. The legislation shields companies from lawsuits that ostensibly acted in good religion throughout the pandemic. Plaintiffs should collect proof, which in some circumstances, such as Covid publicity, is virtually unimaginable, Benoit stated. Despite the obstacles, Benoit believes there’s nonetheless motive for hope. “Mr Tovar’s case proves that insurance coverage corporations could be beat,” Benoit stated.

A couple dances to Mexican music in a club in Cactus, Texas.
A pair dances to Mexican music in a membership in Cactus, Texas. {Photograph}: Encarni Pindado/The Guardian

Tovar stayed on on the JBS plant for months, proper up till he was demoted from his chuck bone duties. The change got here with a pay reduce, from $24 to $19 an hour. “They instructed me I may both take the job or give up,” Tovar stated. On the finish of October, he give up. Inside days, Tovar was working the chuck bone line at one other meatpacking plant close to Amarillo.

Tovar fidgeted uncomfortably on the sting of his front room sofa on a late Could night. He had gone beneath the knife to restore a hernia only some days prior. The harm occurred whereas doing the identical chopping, lifting and twisting he had been doing for 3 many years in meatpacking homes. “The hernia tore open,” he stated, and the slab of beef and knife fell from his palms in the meanwhile. “The ache was intense,” he stated.

Staff’ compensation insurance coverage coated the price of his hernia surgical procedure. Simply two days later, he was again at work for the 6am shift.


The meat processing industry has been determined for staff, nonetheless reeling from pandemic associated shortages, and Trump period limits on refugee arrivals, down from 110,000 to simply 15,000. Some have been providing signing bonuses of as much as $5,000. Amazon, in the meantime, has been constructing a warehouse in Amarillo, and plenty of within the refugee communities hoped to land a job there, apparently unfazed by the tales of the tech large’s poor therapy of its staff.

Tovar, for his half, has been looking for which means in his lawsuit. “I feel I did the fitting factor,” Tovar stated. “Hopefully it helps others.”

  • Further reporting by Encarni Pindado

  • The Worldwide Ladies’s Media Basis contributed to this text by way of grants awarded to Encarni Pindado.

Show More

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button