From efforts to map Odysseus’s journey to Borges’s commentary on map-making in On Exactitude in Science (the place the solely enough map is in actual fact as giant as the territory it depicts), fictions and maps have lengthy maintained a complicated, entwined relationship. Whereas the proper map can uniquely resonate with a literary textual content, this resonance exists amid an simple rigidity: a priority that the map would possibly demystify or oversimplify a narrative, at worst imposing a single, reductive viewpoint on one thing that needs to be open and unbounded.
Exploring this rigidity, whereas additionally charting the ways in which the relationship between maps and literature has modified by means of eras and genres, the Huntington’s new exhibit Mapping Fiction brings collectively literary maps from tons of of years of literary historical past. Drawing from the Huntington’s archives of uncommon literary texts, the exhibition goes again to the early days of recent literature with texts like The Pilgrim’s Progress and Journey to the Middle of the Earth (not Jules Verne’s model however relatively a 1741 e book written by Norwegian author Ludvig Holberg), persevering with as much as the up to date period with mappings of Octavia Butler’s life and works and artist David Lilburn’s 2006 mapping of James Joyce’s Ulysses.
“This exhibition explores the query of what’s augmented or diminished by studying a story with a map,” stated exhibition curator Karla Nielsen to the Guardian. “Are the textual content and the map competing or complementary? Do the maps intervene with the world being constructed, or do they assist?”
Mapping Fiction grew out of Nielsen’s need to have fun the centennial of James Joyce’s Ulysses, which was first printed in full in 1922 by Sylvia Seashore in Paris. As Nielsen defined, over the years the novel has had its personal complicated relationship with efforts to map each its bodily topography and its imaginative realms.
One flashpoint occurred in 1934, when, after years of pirated editions and courtroom battles over the textual content’s supposed obscenity, Random Home finally introduced out the first authorized American version of Ulysses. Figuring out the status of this notably tough novel, Random Home wished to incorporate in its version explanatory supplies that may map out the novel, making it a neater elevate for its first readers. Joyce adamantly resisted, resulting in a tense standoff. Finally they compromised, with Random Home releasing a poster that included a map of Dublin, explanations as to find out how to get pleasure from Ulysses, and reassurances that the novel made sense.
Conscious of that historical past, Nielsen noticed an “alternative to contextualize that second and the methods Ulysses has been put into e book kind and mapped”, and thus the seed of Mapping Fiction was planted. Though the exhibition facilities round Joyce’s masterpiece, it contains works of varied literary genres relationship again way back to the sixteenth century, in addition to numerous artworks and ephemera, all based mostly on the query of how maps work together with the literary texts which have impressed them.
“I wished to consider how, as the expertise modified, the means maps may very well be put into books modified,” stated Nielsen. “As an example, it was in the nineteenth century that publishers started to consider what you possibly can do with a e book cowl, if you happen to may put a map on it. As time handed, individuals started having the ability to insert maps into a number of locations in a e book. These types of questions are involved with the materiality of narrative and literature, how the e book as a kind has managed to arrange narrative spatially.”
Whereas Joyce was firmly anti-map, different authors proven in Mapping Fiction, together with fellow excessive modernist apostle William Faulkner, had a unique perspective. When Random Home printed Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom! shortly after Joyce’s Ulysses, the writer fearful that the novel could be too exhausting to observe and requested Faulkner for a map of Yoknapatawpha county and a family tree of his characters. The gregarious southerner was very happy to oblige. He additionally later made a map of Yoknapatawpha county that charted out his numerous novels for Viking Press’s version of The Transportable Faulkner, charmingly referring to himself in the map of the county as its “sole proprietor and proprietor”.
Mapping Fiction additionally options books whose authors downright demanded that maps be included. When Robert Lewis Stevenson’s writer tried to convey out his 1886 novel Kidnapped with out the creator’s map, Stevenson was outraged. “With out the map, Kidnapped didn’t operate the means Stevenson wished it to,” Nielsen stated. “He actually wished readers to have the ability to perceive how this kidnapped character was being moved round. Having that topographic consciousness as a reader provides you a degree of management over the story that the protagonist doesn’t have.”
Nielsen’s exhibition affords an intriguing alternative to meditate on how maps and novels can both operate in concord or get in each other’s means. Each may be seen as methods to arrange narratives and make interpretations of actuality, and every has its personal explicit means of reaching these objectives. They’re at their greatest when every makes use of its explicit means of seeing to reinforce the different’s capability to construct worlds and look at our widespread milieu. On this cautious steadiness, realizing what particulars to incorporate and which to go away out is essential.
“That’s one thing about how fictional narrative works,” stated Nielsen. “It’s partial. You could not get minute explanations of characters, however that doesn’t imply you don’t expertise the character as full. Maps are related in that they don’t embrace every thing. Each must reply related formal questions, like how a lot element to incorporate.”
Guests to Mapping Fiction can see for themselves how authors and their publishers have managed these questions inside the constraints of kind and the technological potentialities of the time. The exhibition offers perception on how, as totally different novelistic kinds, genres and strategies of manufacturing have risen to prominence, they’ve enabled their very own explicit means of making fictional terrain. These fictional worlds have, in flip, formed our perceptions of the locations we inhabit.
“Our realities are world-building tasks,” stated Nielsen. “We make the world out of our perceptions and the classes we construct. In the 18th century, for example, maps and novels have been fulfilling a curiosity about the greater world of issues and different individuals’s actions. In the nineteenth, many readers skilled westward growth by means of Mark Twain’s chronicles of his life story. Rising understandings of those locations have been enabled by means of imaginative narrative.”
It’s a course of that continues to this present day. Mapping Fiction contains two maps that guests can check out for themselves: one in every of the Huntington’s Chinese language backyard, which places into area many essential moments from Chinese language historical past, and one in every of Octavia Butler’s Pasadena, which is a brief drive from the Huntington. It additionally options up to date works like Karen Tei Yamashita’s 1997 novel Tropic of Orange, which Nielsen says provides a “blimp’s-eye view of Los Angeles.”
“I feel it’s essential to place out up to date books too,” stated Nielsen, “so individuals can are available and say, ‘oh wow, I’ve that e book!’”