Tright here’s absolutely just one factor that unites Russian composer Igor Stravinsky’s Ceremony of Spring, the 1974 comedy horror Younger Frankenstein and The Muppets’ most latest particular on Disney+. Regrettably, it isn’t Kermit the Frog. The factor that seems in all of those works has no simply recognisable acquainted title, though it’s maybe one of many most recognisable three-beat musical phrases in historical past. It begins with a dun; it continues with a dun; it ends with a duuun!
On display screen, a dramatic “dun, dun duuun” has appeared in all the things from Disney’s Fantasia to The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air to The IT Crowd. In 2007, a YouTuber scored a video of a melodramatic prairie canine with the three beats, incomes over 43m views and a strong place in web historical past. But although many people are conversant in the sound, nobody appears to know precisely the place it got here from. Attempt to Google it and … dun, dun, duuun! Its origins are a thriller.
Taken collectively, these three duns are what’s often called a sting – a quick little bit of music that media producers can use to interrupt up the motion or punctuate a theatrical second. Whereas immediately’s dun dun duuuns are sometimes employed jokingly to parody the dramas of days passed by, the suspenseful sound was as soon as legitimately used to frighten and thrill.
“One of many challenges of radio – and it’s the identical now because it was 100 years in the past – is how do you hook the listener?” says Richard Hand, a media professor on the College of East Anglia and creator of Terror on the Air! Horror Radio in America, 1931-1952. Alongside orchestral stings, sound results resembling clock chimes, claps of thunder, and whistling wind had been used to seize the viewers’s consideration within the early days of radio, because the medium has at all times invited multitasking.“These dramatic organ stings might have a strong impact.”
Earlier than the event of sound libraries, many of those stings had been carried out dwell. “They turned cliched and we snicker at them, however really what soundscapes can do will be extraordinary.”
Suspense, an American horror present broadcast on CBS Radio between 1942 and 1962, was stuffed to the brim with sound results and dramatic stings. Simply over three minutes into its first episode (after bells, the sound of a prepare, and loads of piano), a three-beat sting lingers on its final be aware when a person discovers his spouse is doubtlessly an undead poisoner. But it surely’s troublesome to pinpoint the very first on-air dun dun duuun, and it’s probably the musical phrase predates the radio. Hand says the medium tended to undertake already common tropes to entice listeners. “They imported that musical construction and musical language,” he says, pointing to Victorian stage melodramas.
In reality, Patrick Feaster – an knowledgeable within the preservation of early sound media, and co-founder of the First Sounds Initiative – argues that dun dun duuun might have been a cliche lengthy earlier than the appearance of radio drama. Although he doesn’t know when or the place the three duns arose, he factors out that stings “that work in a lot the identical method” appeared within the 1912 melodrama parody Determined Desmond by comic Fred Duprez.
In a recording of the sketch which can be heard on the US Library of Congress website, Duprez mocks melodramas by telling a narrative and rebutting the incongruous sounds that play between the motion (when a villain enters with a dramatic sting and a clip-clop, he exasperatedly says, “Not on a horse! Simply on his toes!”).
Although the stings heard on this sketch are single duns (sans the observe -up dun and duuun), Feaster says: “It appears stinger chords should have been entrenched sufficient in melodrama by 1912 to ask parody.” He guesses that the three-beat model might have then come to be most popular for satire, “as a result of it’s extra conspicuous than a single all-at-once chord can be.”
Producers continued to get pleasure from parodying dramatic stings on radio exhibits all through the twentieth century – The Goon Present within the Fifties repeatedly ridiculed audio tropes in mock detective tales resembling The Dreaded Piano Clubber. Often, three duns had been nonetheless used for dramatic impact in movie: In 1940’s Fantasia, Disney’s recording of Stravinsky’s 1913 Ceremony of Spring emphasised two duns and a lingering duuun on the finish of a dinosaur battle (although the composer’s authentic options a similar three beats, they’re not as pronounced or as recognisable because the sound we all know immediately). From Tom and Jerry to Ren and Stimpy, dun dun duuuns additionally cropped up in cartoons, making certain the sound turned a tv mainstay. Young Frankenstein’s version debuted within the Seventies, and it was this recording that was used for the dramatic prairie canine viral vid. However since 1984, when you’ve heard a dun dun duuun vibrating out of your tv set, it’s probably it got here from one particular supply.
“It’s like having a Penguin Basic,” says 74-year-old composer Dick Walter, who has organized music for programmes resembling The Two Ronnies and The Morecambe & Clever Present. In 1983, recordings library KPM Music requested Walter to supply 4 vinyl albums of musical phrases often called The Editor’s Companion. With an orchestral lineup of round 35 to 40 individuals, Walter recorded hundreds of tracks over the course of 18 months, together with chase music, sleighbells, and a four-second, three-beat sting referred to as Shock Horror (A) that includes the notes D#, C and F#.
“It’s musical shorthand which says quite a bit in a short time,” Walter says of the primary of 5 melodramatic exclamations that run all the best way right down to Shock Horror (E). However the place did he discover the inspiration? Walter’s mom, an beginner pianist, used to play Edwardian and Victorian melodrama in the home, whereas he was a lover of jazz as a teen. He explains that for hundreds of years, composers have used a selected musical interval to indicate stress. Its title? Diabolus in musica – or “the satan’s interval” to you and me.
The satan’s interval is a dissonant mixture of tones that unsettles the listener as a result of it’s unresolved. You’ve probably heard the satan’s interval because the opening two notes to The Simpson’s theme tune, in addition to the start of Maria from West Facet Story (Walter helpfully sings each). But in each instances, the stress is instantly resolved with the subsequent be aware, producing a nice impact. “However when you don’t resolve it, you’re left feeling unhappy,” Walter explains, “That’s what it boils right down to.”
When Walter was charged with creating horror stings for The Editor’s Companion, “the apparent factor to do” for Shock Horror (A) was use the interval – his is “simply an especially abbreviated model, about as quick as you may get”. Just a few years in the past, he was blissful to listen to his sting performed on BBC radio present I’m Sorry I Haven’t a Clue, realising “it’s clearly turn into a little bit of a go-to factor”.
That is an understatement – The recording has since been utilized in SpongeBob SquarePants, Roseanne, The Contemporary Prince of Bel-Air and Beavis and Butt-Head, in addition to adverts for cereal, snacks and a house enchancment retailer. Whereas some producers might want to create their very own model, Walter’s sting has turn into a straightforward staple – the bread and butter of dun, dun, duuuns. There’s – dramatic pause! – no method of understanding the place it should find yourself subsequent.
“I believe the factor that makes Shock Horror eminently usable is that it’s orchestral, so it’s fairly huge,” Walter says of the monitor’s enchantment. “So in a single sense, it doesn’t date. It’s kind of timeless.”